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Ruling elites need strong connections to the center for political survival, but their linkages to the international military forces and their control of Ashley Jackson asian trade and local economic activity are equally, if not more, important to their influence. Patronage, as it has been historically conceived of in Afghanistan, is no longer a lens that accurately captures the multidimensional and often volatile relationships that govern access to resources.
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Some traders Ashley Jackson asian Nangarhar districts were found who had established connections with Peshawar and Kabul to escape the control of the Jalalabad elite. Connections are also distributional, in that they enable resource flows and sharing; strategies of power accumulation require access to resources.
The war in the desert, the defence of Malta and the Malayan campaign, and the contribution of the empire as a whole in terms of supplies, communications and troops, all reflect the strategic importance of Britain's imperial status. Rarely attempting to confront or subdue his rivals, President Ashley Jackson asian Karzai instead relied on transactional bargains with personalities at the center of these networks to support the appearance of his dominance.
Specific incidents of volatility may be mistaken for actual structural change, but volatility is a structural feature and helps explain why, even as political alliances and bargains change dramatically Ashley Jackson asian week Ashley Jackson asian week, the system ultimately functions in the same manner over many years.
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She has been engaged in aid work in and policy work on Afghanistan sinceincluding research conducted as part of the Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium.
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These traders manipulated the market by setting prices, controlling volumes, and restricting credit to smaller farmers to prevent their being competitive.
Ties of loyalty Ashley Jackson asian individuals who are part of the same network derive from kinship or tribal affiliations, or from deliberate choices to access the highest possible arenas of power and volumes of capital.
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